The Virtues of Planning
“Prudence,” to paraphrase Augustine, “is the desire to choose wisely between the things that help and those that hinder.”1 Though it holds less moral imperative for the design of a digital edition, Augustine’s description of foresight is a useful maxim for these first steps on the DigitalSEL. Good data modeling and database design make a big difference in the viability of a project and how easy it will be to maintain. Fundamentally for the DigitalSEL, the database will store most of the text in the project, so it is important to design it with care.
Tools of the Trade
I knew nothing about relational databases and data modeling until I became a developer, but they have changed my life (for the better). A relational database is a very powerful and lightweight way of storing structured data that is easy to create, edit, destroy, and most importantly, connect with other data. Basically, a database table is conceptually similar to a spreadsheet with column headings and values assigned to each column.
For example, we could make a database table for a saint:2
It’s pretty clear from a table like this that we can store and retrieve information about something specific like a saint — if we locate the
saint table with the
:id3 number 1, we would be able to discover that it happens to store information about Aquinas. Our data becomes much more exciting and structured, however, if we create another table and create a relationship. For example, we could make a table for a
fraternal_order and give it a
has_many relationship to
Here, I specified that the
fraternal_order table is for the Dominicans. I also edited Aquinas’s table, by changing his
:fraternal_order attribute to
:fraternal_order_id and assigning it the Dominican’s “primary key”: their
:id number. Aquinas is now linked to the Dominicans through the
:fraternal_order_id, which can be called a “foreign key.” If we specify in our data model that a
:fraternal_order has_many :saints and a
:saint belongs_to :fraternal_order, then we can query the database and ask it to return all of the
saints who belong to the
fraternal_order “Dominican.” In other words, we can link database tables together in logical ways that will allow us to store information about inheritance, groupings, and other meaningful relationships.
Naming Convention in the DigitalSEL
At its core, the data model for the DigitalSEL has to contend with the relationships between three main data types: the individual instantiations of a text, the manuscript where an instantiation of a text appears, and the conceptual “text” of a saint’s legend to which textual instantiation belongs. It should be immediately apparent that “text” is a confusing word in this context, and that giving these data useful and semantic names is a an important first step in creating a data model. After some back and forth, I have settled on the following nomenclature:
witness: Though I was tempted to borrow the term “instantiation” from object oriented programming, I decided to use the word “witness” to describe individual manuscript versions of a text. It is the most important piece of data in the model because it stores the edition / transcription of the text.
manuscript: It is probably self-explanatory, but this is the physical document where an archetype is recorded.
archetype: This is the most abstract object in my data model. I decided to use the term archetype to describe the conceptual or “ideal” form of a text.4 It is used to describe an abstracted idea of the “original” or “intended text.” When the DigitalSEL refers to the “South English Legendary Life of St. Oswald the King,” it means the archetype, but when it refers to a specific manuscript version of the Life of Oswald, it means the witness.
The Data Model for the DigitalSEL’s Texts
Here is a diagram of the basic data structure I have designed for the DigitalSEL’s textual edition:
Because I am fundamentally interested in making a critical edition, the textual witness is at the center of my data model and the actual edition of each text will be stored in its
witness_text attribute (OMG, more on that later). A witness belongs to one particular manuscript and a manuscript has only one of any single witness. An archetype will have many witnesses and will have a
one_to_many relationship with manuscripts through witnesses. Lastly, I have decided that I am going to store textual notes in a separate table because I want to create a feature that will allow users to annotate sections of the a witness text in real time.
To work through an example, let’s take the Life of Oswald the King in MS BL, Egerton 1993:
The Life of Oswald recorded in the Egerton 1993 would be the witness. This witness
belongs_toone manuscript, London, British Library, Egerton 1993.
The Egerton witness also belongs to the archetype “South English Legendary Life of Oswald,” which
has_many :witnessesbecause there are other versions of this text.
Since I have included a link between both the
witnesstable, I can also say that the
have_manydifferent manuscript versions.
If I choose to create notes about this witness Life of Oswald, they will be saved in such a way that they would also be available to the manuscript object through the witness table. Since this is true for all witnesses associated with Egerton 1993, it will be possible to query the database starting with Egerton 1993, through each witness, and then return all of the textual_notes. This will tie all of the notes I might add to a witness to the manuscript it belongs to.
Iteration, Iteration, Iteration
It is likely that the model will change as I actually start writing the database and generating the models, but prudence and a little database modeling can really help to get started down the right path. Next up, I plan to type
rails new digital_sel so that I can start testing some ideas about how to store texts.
Augustine’s actual phrasing treats the virtue allegorically: “prudentia, amor ea quibus adujvatur ab eis quibus impeditur, sagaciter seligens” in De Moribus Ecclesiae Catholicae et de Moribus Manichaeorum, cap. 15. ↩
In case you are wondering what is going on with these words with a colon in front of them, they are a special data type called a
symbol. In order to cut down on memory use, most databases have different rules about the data types that you store in them. When you specify that a piece of data will be an
integer, the database will only except integers in that space. A
symbollooks a lot like a
string, which is basically a word or string of characters. A
symbolis special, however, because its is stored in memory in a special way that saves memory. ↩
“Archetype” has a lot going for it in this context. It is not specific like “legend” or “saint’s life,” less vague than “text” or “item,” and accurately describes the fact that the ursprüngliche form of a text in the SEL doesn’t actually exist. ↩